Knowing Encoding Settings and Infos with MediaInfo

ok for new encoders its handy to know the settings and infos on a video
this will help them to get familiarize on encoding infos like 
resolution (width and height of a video), settings, format/codec, and etc of a video 
this guide can also be good for people who want to know more about the video
 
lets begin
 
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Prerequisites
 
download MediaInfo here -> http://mediainfo.sourceforge.net/en
 
then install it the afterwards open it and go to menu “Options” and then “Preferences”
on “Output format” drop down box select “Text” and check “Explorer extension”
this how your screen should look like
 
 
now just click “OK” and go close MediaInfo, now your all set
 
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Showing the Encoding Informations of a Video
 
now look for a video file (ex: mkv mp4 avi) and right click it and select “MediaInfo”
and thats it encoding informations are shown like this in the screenshot
 
 
some encoders useful infos are resolution (width and height), the display aspect ratio,
the x264 version (writing library) if its an updated version and ofcourse the
encoding settings, here is a screenshot
 
 
now you can just google about the informations shown by MediaInfo for you to get more knowledge

Encoding on Command Line

who?
– people who like to learn encoding on cli or command prompt
– windows os (operating system) user
– basic familiarity with windows command prompt 
– already have familiarity with encoding especially extracting the audio of the source and muxing with mkvmergeGUI
 
what?
– you need the following:
  x264 -> http://x264.nl/
  ffmpeg -> http://ffmpeg.zeranoe.com/builds/ (get the static builds and when you extracted it look for the ffmpeg.exe on “bin” folder)
– next step is to put all x264.exe, ffmpeg.exe, neroAacEnc.exe, neroAacDec.exe, neroAacTag.exe
  on a directory for this example will put them all to “C:\” directory
 
how?
– ok lets start ill only give you the ways that i know and the easiest/basics ways for me
  and note that as far as i know there is no proper order on adding the commands 
  put your source video file and extracted source audio (you can use MkvCleaver or MkvExtractGUI-2 for audio extracting) on C:\ directory too
  go to command prompt and go to dir C:\ and type this 
 
  note: myoutfile.mkv and myinputfile.mkv are just examples so you have to name this entries with your souce video located on C:\
 
  for CRF encoding:
  

x264 --preset veryslow --tune animation --crf 27 --vf resize:704,400 -o "myoutfile.mkv" "myinputfile.mkv"
  or if you want to change aq mode to 2 then use the following it has the command –aq-mode 2 
x264 --preset veryslow --tune animation --crf 27 --aq-mode 2 --vf resize:704,400 -o "myoutfile.mkv" "myinputfile.mkv"
 
  for 2-pass encoding:
  first pass (type the following and press enter)
x264 --preset veryslow --tune animation --pass 1 --slow-firstpass --bitrate 300 --aq-mode 2 --vf resize:640,360 -o "myoutfile.mkv" "myinputfile.mkv"
  second pass (type the following and press enter this is not thesame as first pass because of the 
command –pass 2 is not –pass 1 as the first pass)
x264 --preset veryslow --tune animation --pass 2 --slow-firstpass --bitrate 300 --aq-mode 2 --vf resize:640,360 -o "myoutfile.mkv" "myinputfile.mkv"
  for audio encoding 
  since neroAacEnc only inputs audio in WAV format we have to first use ffmpeg and here is how
ffmpeg -i x.aac x.wav
  where x.aac is your source audio so in this example you got aac and x.wav is the output
  now you got the WAV file its time to encode it on NeroAacEnc like this
neroAacEnc -2pass -br 40000 -if <input file> -of <output file>
  the -br option is on bits per second not kilobits per second so thats why 40000 value is in bits or its 40kbps
  and alternative way to encode audio is to use piping think of piping as making the commands all in one line like this
ffmpeg -i input.aac -f wav - | neroAacEnc -ignorelength -q 0.2 -if - -of output.aac
  or you can encode with vorbis audio too using ffmpeg only (my favorite method)
ffmpeg -i inputaudio.aac -acodec libvorbis -aq -1.0 outputaudio.ogg
 
  then after you got the video and audio just mux them through mkvmergeGUI then thats it your done!!!
 
References?
–  if you want/need to know (more) the settings 
or go to command prompt and type this
x264 --help
or for full help type this
x264 --fullhelp>thisIsIt.txt
where thisIsIt.txt will contain the full help file so ye you can even name thisIsIt.txt as another name like Hoorray.txt
and after this just open the thisIsIt.txt file using wordpad to view it on a formatted way unlike viewing with notepad
 
  nero aac -> see the readme.txt 
  or go to command prompt and type this 
neroAacEnc -help
 or if you want to save the help file to a txt file then just enter in the command prompt
neroAacEnc -help>thisIsIt.txt
    
Tricks?
– ok if you know batch files you know you can just make a bat file like EncodeThis.bat and it has the commands inside that bat file like this
x264 --preset veryslow --tune animation --crf 27 --aq-mode 2 --vf resize:704,400 -o "myoutfile.mkv" "myinputfile.mkv"
ffmpeg -i x.aac -f wav - | neroAacEnc -2pass -br 40000 -if - -of x.aac
  in this way you can save yourself from typing a lot on the command prompt and just edit the bat file like a text file and just put the bat file on the directory that the encoding softwares resides in this case C:\ and after that just double click the bat file to run the commands
 
ok thats it your done!

MKV Common Usages

to mux the soft subs of a source video to your reencoded video
download MKVtoolnix either google it or get it here
www.bunkus.org/videotools/mkvtoolnix/downloads.html#windows
i prefer the zip file download because i like it portable
after download extract it and double click mmg.exe (this is mkvmerge GUI)
– click “add” button browse your source video then click “Open”
– in “Tracks, chapters and tags” uncheck everything except the entry that has words “type: subtitles”
– click “add” button browse your reencoded video then click “Open”
– by looking at “Tracks, chapters and tags” this time the entries that has check is
  the video of the reencoded video file hinted by the words “type: video” and audio of
  the reencoded video file hinted by the words “type: audio” 
  and last the subtitles hinted by the words “type: subtitles”
– select the entry with “type: subtitles” then at “General track options”
choose “yes” on the drop down box of “Default track flag”
– on “Output filename” click “Browse” to select a save location and the
filename for the new mux file after that click “Start muxing”
 
———————————
 
splitting mkv by filesize 
– click “add” button browse your input video then click “Open”
– go to “Global” tab and at “Splitting” area check “Enable splitting…”
– select “…after this size” and enter a number like 100M (M stands for MegaBytes)
– if you check “link files” and your playing it using MPC-HC with Haali Splitter 
  then it will play the resulting split files as though they are one video file
  as long as all of them are on the same directory/location
– if you set a number of “max. number of files: ” for example you set 2 then 
  only 2 files will be created and if it exceeded the file size of what you set then
  the second file will be so much larger than the first resulting split file 
– then thats it your ready to click the “Start muxing” button again
NOTE: point and pause your mouse pointer on the input boxes until hints appears
 
———————————
 
File title
– click “add” button browse your input video then click “Open”
– go to “Global” tab and at “Global options” write a title on the
  “File/segment title:” text box
– now your ready to click “Start muxing” button
– when you play this file like on VLC player it will show the title that you set
  at the start of the video if it does not then go to VLC -> Tools -> Preferences -> 
  Subtitles & OSD -> On Screen Display -> then check “Show media title on video start”
 
———————————-
 
Changing the Hash/Checksum of a file
– click “add” button browse your input video then click “Open”
– then just re-mux the file by clicking “Start muxing” button
  this will give your file another unique identifier called checksum/hash like
  CRC and MD5 this are useful if ever your file your uploading becomes banned
  from the file host your uploading to, so you do not need to re-encode the original file 
  again to small size just to have another hash/checksum value

File Corruption Checking

sometimes a file perfectly plays but when you transfer them to another media
like burn them to a disc or copy them to a flash drive or harddrive or in the case
of re-encoding no matter what settings you adjust it always come out out of sync
then the problem is a file corruption namely CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) error
 
so its better if you always check for the CRC info of a file before you re-encode
it for example, so lets start
 
download a checksum software that supports CRC, for example -> http://rapidcrc.sourceforge.net/
then follow the guides below
 
 
 
what if their are no CRC text included on the filename? for example you rename the file or
there is no CRC text when you first download it, then will use AniDB.net, for example
we search the anime “Fireball” on AniDB.net and at the middle of its page look for something 
like this in the screenshot
 
 
after that youll be taken to a page that look like this below
 
 
then thats it you got info on the CRC now so just check with the resulting CRC info you
get from RapidCRC
 
P.S. again simply renaming the file you have will not change the CRC of it, think of CRC
as a unique identification for it, CRC is a checksum just like MD5 and SHA1 to name a few
checksums serves as the real identity of the file so its good for checking if the file is
corrupted
 
sometimes RapidCRC does not support unicode characters or those weird characters you see on filenames sometimes
so in this case just use CRCDropper, more info on its site -> http://www.goat1000.com/crcdropper.php
 
NOTE: just to make it clear if the CRC are not the same then your file is corrupt 

Your Uploaded File is Banned

ok just to make it formal here is what you need to do in order to save yourself from re-encoding the whole file again when your file has been banned on filehosting sites like MediaFire or Megaupload, below is a quoted info from what filehosting sites do in banning your file
 
No human being ever looks at your files. This is a myth started by Rapidshare's manual review of your account upon requesting points redemption. Yes, Rapidshare used to review your account when you requested prizes. However, none of your files were ever downloaded or run. They just looked at file names, and never looked if you didn't ask for any rewards.
 
No file host has ever manually reviewed files.
 
There are three ways files are commonly deleted from file hosts.
MD5 checksums, string matches and DMCA complaints.
In all three cases no human being ever looks at your files.
 
MD5 checksums:
 
All files have a unique order of bits. An MD5 checksum is basically like a file's fingerprint. The odds of any one file ever matching another is quite small. You can change a file's MD5 with the slightest modification. Adding one byte of data or removing it would result in an entirely different checksum. Only some file hosts use MD5. Most notably Megaupload and Depositfiles are known to use MD5 checks. Most hosts do not use them however.
 
String matches:
 
Many file hosts use string matches in order to knock files out. They have a list of commonly abused names that the system regularly sweeps for. However, it is only a string search. It cannot distinguish between a real infringing file and one that does not.
If you name a text file "Iron Man 2.avi" when they run a string search, off it goes. It doesn't matter that it's just a text file.
 
DMCA complaints:
 
DMCA complaints are automated. Anytime one is filed, the file is immediately removed. Even if the filer does not own rights to the link.
If Paramount filed a DMCA against your video of you drinking a gallon of egg nog in under a minute, it would be deleted. just because it was filed. All DMCAs are assumed to be correct.
 
 
the reason why usually encoders re-encode again their files is for it to have a new checksum like MD5 or CRC, think of checksums as unique identification of a file and also its a way to find if a file is corrupt remember those weird combination of letters and numbers you see on fansubs file like “[Mazui]_Mirai_Nikki_OVA_[LQ][76A04333].mkv”, the part that reads like this -> “76A04333” is the checksum and categorize as CRC 
 
so basically according to that spoiler (quoted) info above you need to change 2 things and that is:
– filename (make the filename weird) 
– change the file’s checksum like MD5
 
changing the filename to a weird one is easy so here is a simple way to change the checksum like MD5 and CRC without the need to re-encode that video file from the original source (its simple as muxing the banned file to create a new file that has new checksums) 
 
either install it or just extract the zip file if you decided to download the 7zip (.7z) file
then open mkvmerge or mmg.exe
– now that mkvmerge is opened click “add” to add the banned file you have
– then change the “Output filename” on the bottom of the mkvmerge window and change the output location and click “Start muxing” button
– and thats it the output file from this instruction will have a new checksum for MD5 or CRC
 
but how to confirm if the original file before this muxing steps have different checksum compared to the output file created through this muxing steps? the answer is download a checksum software like this one ->http://rapidcrc.sourceforge.net/
run that rapidcrc and then go to its options and check “MD5” check box for rapidcrc to show even the MD5 of a file being checked, and after that just run a checksum check of the banned file before and after you re-mux it and youll notice later that the checksums have change 
 
so thats it, their are some CRC or MD5 changer software if you google them but i do not recommend them as i do not think they are that reliable they may even corrupt the file itself
 
P.S. confirmation that a simple re-muxing will change the checksum like MD5 or CRC -> http://doom10.org/index.php?topic=1407.0

Making Animated GIF Image from a Video Scene

who?
– people who like to create animated GIF from video scenes using free softwares
– windows os (operating system) user
– basic familiarity with windows command prompt
 
what?
– you need the following
Gimp – http://portableapps.com/apps/graphics_pictures/gimp_portable (i choose the portable version)
– then put mplayer.exe on a directory for this example will put them all to “C:\” directory
– then install gimp portable somewhere for example on “C:\” too
– then put the AnimStack filter file “animstack.scm” inside the Gimp Scripts directory by going to
GIMPPortable folder -> Data folder -> .gimp folder-> scripts folder
 
how?
the basic idea is to use mplayer to extract the frames/images of the video scene
then use GIMP to compile the extracted frames/images to an animated GIF with the help of AnimStack plugin that will
efficiently delete duplicate frames/images, since the lesser the frames the faster
the animation of the GIF will be and it will have lower filesize output too, the details of how 
to do that are below
 
now lets use mplayer to extract every frame of the video scene,
put this commandlines on a .bat file, to do that open notepad and copy & paste this
 
mplayer "[gg]_Chuunibyou_Demo_Koi_ga_Shitai!_-_01_[5B6EFD1F].mkv" -ao null -ss 00:05:22 -endpos 15 -vo png:z=9:outdir=out -vf pp=al,scale=-3:240
pause
 
*** [gg]_Chuunibyou_Demo_Koi_ga_Shitai!_-_01_[5B6EFD1F].mkv is the filename of the video source so change it accordingly
*** -ss 00:05:22 (the format is “hours:minutes:seconds”) is the starting time of the video scene you want to make GIF with, so to find the starting time of a video just play it with your media player and then remember the times then change the 00:05:22 example accordingly
*** -endpos 15 means 15 seconds duration beginning from the starting time or -ss so just change that 15 seconds accordingly
*** scale=-3:240 is the resolution output of the images (or frames) the -3 number is a constant value that means the Width will be automatically calculated according to the Height value which is 240 (or 240p) in this example, you can set higher resolutions like 360 or 480 or 720 but the higher the resolution means the higher the filesize will be of the outputted frames/images and the animated GIF later on, so choose the value accordingly
*** the output folder is named “out” on this command-line indicated by the command “outdir=out
 
– now save this as a “extract-frames.bat” for example and then double click it to run it
– a command prompt showing the progress will appear and after its done just close it and
  go to the “out” folder on thesame directory in this case the “C:\”, you will see a lot of
  images on the “out” folder 
 
– now open GIMP and do this 
– click menu File -> Open as Layers -> select all the images on the “out” folder (in this example the “out” folder is located on the “C:\”)
 
 
NOTE: when opening the images, “Name” column sorting arrow should be up, the triangle looking arrow besides the “Size” column should be pointing upwards (to sort the images from first down to last and when it opens as layers it will be sorted from last down to first), after sorting it accordingly just select all the images or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+A” and then click “Open” button
 
 
– rename 1st layer (starting from lower numbered layer, this should be the very bottom layer) to [delete:2:1] where 2-1 will remove 1 duplicate frame/layer
 


– then go to menu Filters -> Animation -> Process AnimStack Tags, and watch the layers decrease (hence increasing speed of GIF playback)
 


after that test the animation by going to menu Filters -> Animation -> Playback
if the animation is a little to slow that means you have to delete more frames so do the whole process of deleting frames again and afterwards check the animation via the playback option, i ended up with 78 remaning layers by running the [delete:2:1] process 2 times as seen on the screenshot below
 


– then now go to menu Image -> Mode -> Indexed -> select optimize to 255 colors and set the dithering option to “Floyd-Steinberg (reduced color bleeding)” as well as checking “Enable dithering of transparency” and then click “Convert” button
 



after the conversion process is finished just then go to menu File -> Export -> rename to “sample.gif” and then save in the “Desktop” and then save as gif and then click “Export” button
 


now check animation and set it as loop forever and then set 10ms for all layers/frames and then check other option you think its needed and after that click “Export” button 
 


and your done making an animated GIF

Extracting Songs with Audacity

this tutorial is mostly for extracting the opening and ending songs of a fansub anime video
 
Prerequisites
so to start download Audacity here -> http://audacity.sourceforge.net/download/windows
since i do not like installing software much so in this tutorial we will download the zip file
download “Audacity 2.0 zip file”
go to “LAME MP3 encoder” on the Plugins and Libraries area then download “alternative 3.98.4 build”
NOTE: you can also read the instructions on that download page
go to “FFmpeg import/export library” on the Plugins and Libraries area then download “Alternative zip download for FFmpeg 0.6.2”
NOTE: you can also read the instructions on that download page
then after downloading those 3 files just extract Audacity anywhere like on My Documents folder
now extract FFmpeg_v0.6.2_for_Audacity_on_Windows.zip inside the Audacity folder
plus copy and paste “lame_enc.dll” inside the Audacity folder too
 
Configuration
open Audacity.exe inside Audacity folder and press Ctrl+P (or go to Menu -> Edit -> Preferences)
select “Libraries” then click “Locate” button for LAME MP3 so just browse to the location where you paste “lame_enc.dll”
after doing that click “Locate” button for FFmpeg Library so just browse to the location where you can find “avformat-52.dll”
after that click “Ok” button
 
Fusing
open a fansub anime (like mkv or mp4) by pressing Ctrl+O (or go to Menu -> File -> Open)
if it opens with 2 audio wave like look like this screenshot 
 
 
then this means its stereo (or 2 channel) so go convert it to 1 channel by going to Menu -> Tracks -> Stereo Track to Mono
 
 
but if you got multi-channel audio file it will show it like this screenshot
 
 
then press Ctrl+A (or go to Menu -> Edit -> Select -> All) and then go to Menu -> Tracks -> Mix and Render
 
 
after that youll have one audio to work with
 
Selecting
now just find the parts of the audio you like to extract in this case look for the opening song of the fansub anime
you do the selecting by pointing your mouse pointer (cursor) to the beginning of the song and 
then press Shift+J (or go to Menu -> Edit -> Select -> Track Start to Cursor) 
 
 
now press “Delete” key on the keyboard
now the start of the audio file is the beginning of the opening song
 
locate now the ending part of the opening song and when your mouse pointer (cursor) is on that area just 
press Shift+K (or go to Menu -> Edit -> Select -> Cursor to Track End) 
 
 
now press “Delete” key on the keyboard
and now you already have cut the part of the opening song from the fansub anime video
 
Optional
you can add effects to the audio too the most commonly use is the Amplify and BassBoost 
you can find these effects by going to Menu -> Effect -> Amplify (or BassBoost)
 
 
also you can add silence to the beginning or the ending of the song you do this by selecting the 
beginning or ending of the song and then go to Menu -> Generate -> Silence
 
 
i always set 1 second on the “Silence” generator and then press “OK” button to add the 1 second silence near what you  
you selected or mouse pointer (cursor)
 
 
 
Exporting
go to Menu -> File -> Export and click on “Options” button below the “cancel” button
and select “Constant” for the “Bit Rate Mode” and “320 kbps” for the “Quality”
then press “OK” button and rename or make a name on the “File name” inputbox are and just click “Save” button
youll be prompted with additional tagging for the audio your gonna save so either ignore that or fill them in 
with the appropriate data/infos and afterwards click “OK” button 
 
and thats it, done!

Fractal Compression

Fractal Compression – the holy grail of compression particularly on video compression, its resolution independent meaning as you scale it at higher resolutions the quality will not degrade this is like vectors but due to vectors not good at showing real or life like images then raster (or bitmap) images are still the one being widely use today, but that can change when fractal video compression becomes possible for everyday use

source: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/1.05/fractal.html

Encoding Tips for Mini-Size

What you need to encode faster and with quality

– CPU – the more cpu cores you have the faster you can encode, a dual-core CPU
is twice faster against encoding at single-core CPU, and quad-core CPU is 4 times faster against
encoding at single-core CPU, if you use a lot of avisynth filters (some simply call them filters)
other than resize filters then you might notice your multi-core CPU is not using all the cores
this is because avisynth is not designed yet to be multi-threaded, so when your using a lot of
avisynth filters your like encoding at single-core CPU only

– Settings – the higher the quality of the settings the longer/slower the encoding time
but for mini-size encoding its always advisable to set subme=10 (subpixel refinement or motion estimation)
and me=umh (motion estimation), trellis=2, aq-strength=0.6 for highest quality possible
you could get when re-encoding to small size, and if your in megui or staxrip its much easier
you just set preset=veryslow and tune=animation and that will automatically set all the settings of
x264 according to high quality anime compression, and as for encoding mode CRF is only 1-pass
so its faster than 2-pass encoding like average bitrate or filesize mode

– Resolution – the higher the output resolution the longer/slower the encoding time,
for example you encode 2 files with all same settings except that 1 file has output resolution of
576p (1024×576) while the other file has output resolution of 400p (704×400) you will then notice
that 400p is faster to encode than the 576p resolution, this is because part of encoding
is decoding too, in digital video when we say decoding it means playing the video,
but of course x264 wont prompt you with a media player and show you the video playback its
all happening behind the scenes to reserve more computing resources on the encoding process itself

– Software – dont believe a lot of people saying StaxRip is better, MeGUI is great, Handbrake is
awesome, Ripbot264 is super, etc this are all false because all of them uses thesame encoder
to output h264 videos and the name of this h264 encoder is x264, x264 is the best h264 encoder
out there at the moment and that wont change for a long time imo, and btw all those software like
StaxRip, MeGUI, Handbrake, Ripbot264, etc are considered “GUI Front Ends”

– Source – a source file is a video that you want to encode/convert to another format,
the higher the quality of the source file the higher the details youll preserved when you compress or re-encode
the video to small size, lossless video sources are the best like DVD (not DVD rips) and BluRay (not BluRay rips),
the original fansub releases are good sources too, never use rmvb/rm or even youtube videos as source because they
are already over compressed so they already loss too much details

– GPU – dont believe a lot of people saying CUDA encoding is better, yes CUDA based h264 encoders
are blazingly faster when encoding but compared to x264 output at preset=veryslow for example
the CUDA based encoders h264 output files are crap in quality
you can read more about GPU encoding woes here -> http://www.avidemux.org/admWiki/doku.php?id=tutorial:h.264#gpu_support
their are plans to port x264 to use the GPU too but so far no updates for it
and yes at the moment x264 is CPU based encoder, so you dont need a powerful GPU to encode fast
with x264 what you need is a multi-core CPU


x264 useful infos
1. qcomp (a x264 option/feature)
– lowers bitrate on high motion scenes
– increases bitrate on low motion scenes

2. qcomp+mbtree (a x264 option/feature)
– lowers bitrate on high motion block that means it will lower bitrate on parts of the scenes that are in high motion not the whole scene
– increases bitrate on high motion block that means it will higher bitrate on parts of the scenes that are in low motion not the whole scene
– so its recommended to always turn on mbtree do note that qcomp=1.0 will disable mbtree

3. frame counts
– the low motion the overall video the lower the frame count and thus lower the bitrate requirement or filesize overall
– the high motion the overall video the higher the frame count and thus higher the bitrate requirement or filesize overall

4. h264/x264 is bad at encoding dark scenes and/or dark areas
– thats why they invented AQ – Adaptive Quantization (a x264 feature/option) to re-allocate the bitrate more on dark areas/spots/scenes but AQ is not really that working efficiently for animation or cartoon videos
nevertheless its still always advisable to use AQ on animation or cartoon content to prevent other compression artifact that is called banding this is what banding looks like en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colour_banding

5. Video Complexity/Compressibility – video can be called complex if it has more stuffs going on. like in a action movie for example it has lots of high motion throughout the video so its less compressible than lets say a drama tv show that has more low motion through out the video. for a more slightly technical explanation the movement in a low motion video will be easy to predict/estimate than the movement on a high motion video. the better the movement prediction or estimation the better the compressibility in terms of quality output. video objects on low motion video (like drama/moe anime) stays longer on screens so this means less bitrate needed overall to put them there and then put the background back. a high motion video (like action anime) will have lots of bits flying all over the screen from car crashes and explosions so that means more bitrate is needed and thus low compressibility and can be considered high complex video

you may wonder x264 feature especially qcomp increases bitrate on low motion scene so that means anime like K-On for example should be high in bitrate/filesize requirement especially when using CRF? the answer is because K-On has like 100% of each episode have low frame count so low frame count means not much bitrate/filesize needed for the overall video and K-On has less video complexity because its a low motion video so thats why if you notice when encoding anime video like K-on you could encode it at ridiculously high resolution with low filesize/bitrate but still will look good because its not just about low frame count (or having low/static motion scenes overall) its also about K-on anime having bright scenes overall and not much dark scenes

more reading: www.avidemux.org/admWiki/doku.php?id=tutorial:h.264

Encoding mini-size anime useful infos
1. Screens
– 4:3 videos or non-widescreen videos have square shape look when you view it
– 16:9 videos or widescreen videos have rectangular shape look when you view it
more reading: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspect_ratio_(image)

2. Resolution
– SD means Standard Definition and this is usually 480p
preferred resize for mini-SD anime is 400p (704×400) for widescreen video and for non-widescreen video 384p (512×384) is advice resize
– HD means High Definition and this is usually equal or greater than 720p, but on the fansubbing world HD for widescreen starts at 1024×576 this is because some sources for HDTV are bad looking if they go with 720p and thus fansubbers resize it down to 576p
– preferred resize for mini-HD anime is 576p (1024×576) for widescreen video (on fansubbing terms)
more reading:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blu-ray_Disc#Video

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-definition_video#Standard_high-definition_video_modes
– 288p is VCD resolution and we dont use this anymore as its too little on today’s standard desktop resolutions
we dont have desktop resolutions of 800×600 anymore so 288p is small and gets blurry in full screen mode viewing because of the big difference in resolution of your desktop (ex. 1366×768 or 768p) and the 288p video
– upscaling resizing up the video will not only make the video blurry but will loose more details when encoding to mini filesizes
– downscaling or resizing down the video of mini filesize encodes for example 720p resize to 400p will preserved more details and so low bitrate/filesize needs lower resolution to maintain a balance on bitrate allocation
but the downside of downscaling is that it will not be as sharp as the original source
simply because its lower resolution nevertheless if you want to preserved details more on mini size anime then downscaling is for you
– tutorial on resolution calculation -> Resolution Calculation
– the higher the resolution you set your output the longer the encoding time

3. Filesize
for 2-pass encoding of mini size anime:
– SD resolution – 60mb is appropriate in most cases
– HD resolution – 120mb is appropriate in most cases
for CRF encoding of mini size anime
– SD resolution – CRF value 24 to 27 is appropiate in most cases
– HD resoltution – CRF value of 28 to 31 is appropiate in most cases

4. Settings
– you may wonder why lots of fansubs have x264 settings meant for fast/low quality encoding this is because
they compensate it with higher bitrate or lower CRF value
– so for mini-size encoding to compensate with the low bitrate or higher CRF value its advisable to
use x264 settings that are higher or meant for slow/high quality encoding

Video Encoding FAQs for Mini-Size Viewers

what is a video? is a bunch of pictures/images that are sequentially played

what is video encoding? it is the process of converting the video to a specific video format or specification
for playback reasons, encoding can sometimes be referred to as compression too and their are 2 kinds
of compression namely lossy and lossless

what is lossy and lossless compression? lossless compression means that every piece of data on the
video file is preserved but this also means that the filesize of this videos are big, mean while
lossy compression is removing lots of data on a video and thus lowering the filesize of the video
without hurting much the quality of the video compared to the original video

 
how to shrink the filesize of a video but retaining its quality? you cannot since its the nature
of lossy compression to decrease the quality for the benefit of reducing the filesize, in other words
removing more bitrate will lessen quality and also reduces filesize
how to bring back the (loss) quality of a mini-size video? you cannot since once the quality of the video is lost
the data/information/bits on that video are already removed forever, you may try re-encoding the mini-size video
to lets say higher resolution (or upscaling) and higher filesize but you will never see an increase in quality and
in fact its gonna be more blurry, again its the nature of lossy compression


what is h264? h264 is a standard or video format that is popular right now.
h264 is the best for lossy compression on video at the moment. h264 can be alternatively called as
MPEG-4 Part 10 or AVC (Advance Video Coding)

what is x264? x264 is an encoder that implements the h264 standard, so simply means x264 outputs h264 video files

what is a source file? a source file is a video that you want to encode/convert to another format,
the higher the quality of the source file the higher the details youll preserved when lossy compressing/encoding
the video to small size, lossless video sources are the best like DVD and BluRay

what is ripping? is the process of copying video content from digital media like DVD and BluRay disc
to a computer storage device like a harddisk, you may have notice terms like DVD-Rip or BluRay-Rip this means that this videos came from DVD or BluRay sources that they encode it to either lossless or lossy compression methods
but usually lossy compressions like fansubs releases that are in .mkv or .mp4 containers for example

what is video container? video containers can be explained like a organize cabinet and like a organize cabinet
it has drawers that occupies a specific thing like for example drawer 1 has all pencils and drawer 2
has all erasers, etc. So same thing for video containers like .mkv and .mp4, for example .mkv as video container
can include soft-subtitles, the video or other videos, the audio or any other audio. in the Fansubs and
Warez world .mkv is the most use container because its open source meaning its constantly being developed
and maintained. A lot of people mistook .mkv as a format, the reason for your high quality video
in small size is not .mkv the real format that is responsible for all your awe is h264 through the use
of x264 encoder

why use x264 and not CUDA/GPU h264 encoders or Nero AVC encoder to output h264 video files?
well x264 is open source and because its open source it is constantly being developed and maintained
until perfected or until a new video format exceeds the h264 format. Dont be fooled by those
GPU/CUDA based encoders they maybe fast on encoding but the quality compared to x264 is totally bad

what is MeGUI, StaxRip, Handbrake, etc? this softwares are called front-ends to encoders like x264
people sometimes mistook this softwares as the encoders themselves but they are not. This softwares
are just GUI for encoders like the x264 encoder for example

why mini-size videos are small compared to fansubs? as you might know fansubs and any
other mini-size anime encoders uses x264 so primarily their is no trick on making the filesize small
its just that mini-size encoders lowers the bitrate/filesize of the video at the cost of quality loss
compared to the fansubs releases video quality

what are the sources use by mini-size encoders to encode to mini-size? usually mini-size encoders
use the fansubs releases that are in sizes like 150+ mb to 450+ mb for a 24 minute video

why not all mini-size encodes have thesame video quality? primarily because not all video have thesame
video complexity, when we say video complexity we refer to its compressibility, a video episode that contains
lots of action and explosions for example is hard to compress because it needs lot of bitrate/filesize
to maintain quality than a video episode that has lots of low motion scenes like talking anime character that have only his/her face moving for example, so an anime episode video that has lots of low motion scenes can be referred
to as less complex video and thus can be compressed greatly in good video quality and small-filesize